Adel Wahner Vanderbilt Jr. Las Cruces, N.M. FRISCO, Texas – The Southland Bowling League has announced the first-ever Southland Bowling All-Conference teams. The squads are headlined by Vanderbilt, Stephen F. Austin, Sam Houston State and Arkansas State – each with four selections. The teams comprise four of the 12 programs that will be competing in the upcoming 2019 NCAA Bowling Championship. Seven of the eight Southland Bowling member institutions are represented in the all-conference selections. Southland Bowling League yearly awards are presented by Ready Nutrition.Maria Bulanova and Samantha Gainor pave the way for Vanderbilt as the duo earns first team honors following their 2018-19 regular-season and Southland Bowling Tournament play. The pair are joined by Adel Wahner who is a second-team selection. Jordan Newham rounds out the Commodore selections with an honorable mention nod. The Commodores have accumulated a 94-33 record throughout the season for a .740 win percentage. Vanderbilt finished as the runner-up at the 2019 Southland Bowling Tournament, but still managed to qualify for the 2019 Women’s Bowling National Championship as the tournament’s No. 1 seed. Tournament play will be hosted at RollHouse Wickliffe in Wickliffe, Ohio. Vandy’s first round at the tournament is slated for Thursday, April 11.Sam Houston State also earns four selections, led by the Southland Bowling League’s Newcomer of the Year Bea Hernandez, who claimed a spot on the first team. Hernandez is joined by fellow Bearkats Madysen Keller, Katelyn Dickerson and Hayley Connelly, who were all three tabbed honorable mention. Sam Houston State is coming off its first Southland Bowling League title after knocking off No. 1 Vanderbilt in the final round of a best-of-seven Baker matchup. The league title earned the Bearkats an automatic qualifying bid to the NCAA Women’s Bowling Championship where they will take on the winner of the Stephen F. Austin and Prairie View A&M match on Thursday, April 11.Stephen F. Austin senior Dakotah Hazlewood grabs a position on the first team to lead four Ladyjack all-conference honorees. Paige Beeney, Sarah Gill and Carlene Beyer were also recognized with honorable mention for the SFA squad. The Ladyjacks qualified for the NCAA Bowling Championship as an at-large bid and will face Prairie View A&M in the opening round at Emerald Bowl Friday, April 5 in Houston.Arkansas State, the fourth and final team to earn four all-conference selections, are led by Julia Huren, Denishya Waller and Leah Glazer who comprise three of the five spots on the second team. Taylor Davis rounds out the Red Wolves honorees with an honorable mention nod. Arkansas State has racked up the nation’s fifth-best RPI, which is enough to give the Red Wolves an at-large berth into the NCAA Championship. They will take on Medaille College Tuesday, April 9 at RollHouse Wickliffe in Wickliffe, Ohio.Tulane’s Tiera Gulum and Madison McCall earns all-conference honors as the Green Wave’s selections. Gulum nabbed a spot on the second team after a stellar senior season where she rolled Tulane’s first-ever 300 game at the Sunshine State Winter Classic in Orlando, Fla. (Feb. 8-10). McCall claimed honorable mention recognition for the Green Wave after dealing 547 strikes throughout the season.Louisiana Tech’s Kaitlyn Eder is the lone Lady Techster claiming post season accolades with a first team bid. Eder has picked up 431 spares this season for a 72.2 spare percentage. The sophomore from Lithia, Fla., pushed her Louisiana Tech squad to a pair of first-place tournament finishes this season, including wins at the All State Sugar Bowl Collegiate Bowling Invitational in Harahan, La. (Oct. 19-21) and the JSU Sonic Boom Invitational in Jackson, Miss. (Nov. 9-11).Youngstown State’s Nikki Mendez is the final member of the all-conference team, as the junior claimed honorable mention accolades. Mendez accrued an 18.94 average in traditional game matches to lead her team and racked up 457 strikes.The 2019 Southland Bowling League All-Conference teams are chosen based on the Player Composite Performance Index (PCPI) of the league’s top 20 bowlers throughout the season and including all Southland Bowling Tournament play. Kaitlyn Eder Louisiana Tech So. Lithia, Fla. Leah Glazer Arkansas State So. Henderson, Nev. Samantha Gainor Vanderbilt So. Chesterfield, Mich. Hayley Connelly Sam Houston State So. Hazlet, N.J. Sarah Gill Stephen F. Austin So. Attleboro, Mass. Madison McCall Tulane So. Myrtle Beach, S.C. Katelyn Dickerson Sam Houston State Jr. Painesville, Ohio Jordan Newham Vanderbilt Sr. Aurora, Ill. Carlene Beyer Stephen F. Austin Fr. Ogdensburg, Wis. Nikki Mendez Youngstown State Jr. Homer Glen, Ill. Julia Huren Arkansas State Jr. Westland, Mich. Bea Hernandez Sam Houston State Fr. Bambang Pasig City, Philippines 2019 Southland Bowling League All-Conference Honorable Mention Name School Cl. Hometown 2019 Southland Bowling League All-Conference First Team Name School Cl. Hometown Madysen Keller Sam Houston State Sr. Mathews, N.C. Denisyha Waller Arkansas State Sr. Markham, Ill. Maria Bulanova Vanderbilt Jr. Moscow, Russia Paige Beeney Stephen F. Austin Sr. Salado, Texas Tiera Gulum Tulane Sr. Schenectady, N.Y. 2019 Southland Bowling League All-Conference Second Team Name School Cl. Hometown Dakotah Hazlewood Stephen F. Austin Sr. Capron, Ill. Taylor Davis Arkansas State So. Davison, Mich.
Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Arvin Tolentino, Thirdy Ravena, and Javi Gomez De Liaño have all been suspended throughout the course of the season but none have compared to what the forward from Far Eastern University has merited.Of the three, only Tolentino was tossed for two separate occasions with the second one sidelined the 6-foot-4 forward for a couple of games.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSJapeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for GinebraSPORTSGolden State Warriors sign Lee to multiyear contract, bring back ChrissTolentino, who was suspended for a total of three games, has since learned from his mistakes and looked to atone for what he has done putting up gaudy scoring numbers for the Tamaraws in the two games after serving his suspension.“I have to be careful with what I’m doing because they’re very strict with the calls this season,” said Tolentino in Filipino after their 80-61 win over University of the East Sunday at Ynares Center here. “There are things that you can’t get away from, so I just need to adjust.”Tolentino is averaging 19.5 points in his return from his two-game suspension, matches that FEU lost to Ateneo (82-62) and University of the Philippines (95-82), and has helped the Tamaraws climb to fourth with a 6-6 record.FEU’s latest win against the Red Warriors was also of utmost importance for the Tamaraws as they climbed back to the Final Four picture after falling to as low as sixth in the standings during their four-game losing streak.“I’m just doing my job because we’ve fallen down deeply in the standings,” said Tolentino who had 18 points, five rebounds, and two steals against UE. “These last two games are crucial for us.”“After that four-game losing streak we just stayed positive,” added Tolentino.ADVERTISEMENT Gov’t to employ 6,000 displaced by Taal Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Japeth Aguilar embraces role, gets rewarded with Finals MVP plum Tim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crown Cormier chokes out Lewis, defends 2nd title at UFC 230 Gretchen Barretto’s daughter Dominique graduates magna cum laude from California college LATEST STORIES Allen Durham still determined to help Meralco win 1st PBA title ANTIPOLO—The UAAP Season 81 men’s basketball tournament has so far seen three suspensions as it winds down to its last games heading into the Final Four.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. MOST READ Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Will you be the first P16 Billion Powerball jackpot winner from the Philippines? For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. View comments
Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Bachmann to submit report on leadership woes of NSAs Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award The win enabled BanKo Perlas to close in on league leader Motolite-Ateneo, which remained on top with a 10-3 card.“It’s good to have that unified goal of making the Final Four,” said the 25-year-old Villanueva. “I guess when you trust each other, that’s more than enough to achieve that goal.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSJapeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for GinebraSPORTSGolden State Warriors sign Lee to multiyear contract, bring back ChrissMyla Pablo scored 20 points for the Lady Warriors who picked up their third straight defeat and are now in danger of getting eliminated.Creamline was locked in battle with ousted Iriga Navy at press time. Allen Durham still determined to help Meralco win 1st PBA title MOST READ Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Japeth Aguilar embraces role, gets rewarded with Finals MVP plum Will you be the first P16 Billion Powerball jackpot winner from the Philippines? LATEST STORIES Tim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crown Gretchen Barretto’s daughter Dominique graduates magna cum laude from California college Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil Gov’t to employ 6,000 displaced by Taal With Amanda Villanueva taking the leader’s role, BanKo Perlas crushed Pocari Sweat, 27-25, 19-25, 25-16, 25-20, Wednesday night to formally make the semifinals of the Premier Volleyball League Open Conference at Filoil Flying V Centre.Villanueva, a heavy-hitter in her college days but hardly given a chance to shine in club leagues, had 22 points on top of 15 excellent reception and nine excellent digs as the Perlas Spikers stormed to the next round with a 9-3 record.ADVERTISEMENT View comments
The LFA Cellcom FA Cup Round 3 begins Sunday, February 23, at the Antoinette Tubman Stadium with Watanga going against Monrovia Breweries at 3p.m.On Monday, February 24, LPRC-Oilers will clash with Barrack Young Controllers at 5p.m also at the Antoinette Tubman Stadium.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Edward K. Weah, the pastor on trial for allegedly using his tooth to cut piece of the nose of a neighbor’s wife, took the witness stand on Monday and denied the allegation.Defendant Weah is the senior pastor of Christ the King Church, in the Voice of America (VOA) community, on the Robertsfield’s Highway.He and his wife, Marthaline Weah were indicted by the government with the commission of the crime aggravated assault, after Madam Lucia Garmai Oberly claimed she was beaten and the defendant used his tooth to cut piece of her nose.However, testifying as the defense team’s first witness at Criminal Court ‘A,’ Defendant Weah admitted fighting Madam Oberly, stressing that he did it in self defense.“I did not bite her nose. I fought back after Garmai and her children engaged me in a serious tussle. Both of us got wounded badly and the community advised each of us to treat our wounds,” Pastor Weah told the court.“After I slipped and felt, Garmai and her brothers sat over me and they began to beat and I struggled to free myself,” Defendant Weah further alleged.In his testimony, Pastor Weah alleged that the incident happened on May 16, after his school’s teachers prevented two of Garmai’s children, Emmanuel Peters and Emmanuel Cooper from entering their classes.He said, the reason was that they came to school late that morning.“When they were stopped from entering their classes, Emmanuel Peters, the younger boy, attempted sneaking his way into his class. He was immediately stopped by my wife, Mother Weah,” Weah explained.When Peters was prevented from entering the class, his older brother, Emmanuel Cooper began to abuse my wife, claiming “my wife touched him during the process.”He also quoted Cooper by saying, “This woman is ready again to act stupid. The other day, we were at the church and she pushed me again. Today I will not allow her act stupid this time. I will deal with this foolish woman.”“While he was still using abusive language on the school’s campus,” defendant Weah further alleged, “I decided to ask him, what was happening?”“I also asked him, what he was depending on to abuse my wife.”After that Pastor Weah explained that he was advised by some of his teachers to leave the boy and he did.“While on my way home, I met Garmai and she asked me what I said to her children. And, I explained everything to her; I even referred her to one of my teachers to confirm what I have explained to her.”The defense first witness added, “She came back to me and told me that the remarked I made against her children was sarcastic and I was not a good Pastor.”The defendant claimed that he replied Garmai by saying, “I will not allow you approaching me like this anymore.”That response, Pastor Weah claimed, annoyed Garmai to the extent that she began to demand him to immediately give her the children’s school’s documents.“I told her that I was not going to give her the documents. Then she started abusing me,” he further alleged.He also quoted some of Garmai’s insulting words like “dirty man, witchcraft pastor and witchcraft church. Today, I will breakdown your church and school and your wife is a prostitute.”“After she used this abusive language, my wife replied and said that she was one of those disgraced women in the community who was in the habit of running away from her creditors.”Following those exchanges, defendant Weah alleged that Garmai instructed her children to abuse Mother Weah and him.After that I was advised to leave the school’s campus and I did.“When I returned in the evening, Garmai and her children again came back to my yard and they started insulting me and my family. I came outside and asked them to leave my premises,” defendant Weah told the court.In the process, Pastor Weah further alleged that “one of her sons, Emmanuel Cooper, punched me on my face. By the time I came to myself, I saw myself on the ground. Immediately, Garmai and her children came over me and they started beating me. But, I struggled and freed myself from their hands.”“It was during the fight that both of us sustained serious injured and we were advised by members of our community to treat ourselves,” Pastor Weah further alleged.The case continues tomorrow with the defense team producing witnesses to testify. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
TAYLOR, B.C. — The Vertical Slam Ultimate Challenge has raised close to $4,000 that will be donated to the School District 60’s meal programs.Organizer Laurie Cardinal said that a total of $3,806 that was split up and donated to 11 area schools to contribute to their meals programs. Cardinal said that dropping off the cheques was an eye-opener for the organizers, as many students at area schools are showing up to school with no meals at all.Cardinal said that next year, the Vertical Slam hopes to raise even more money for the School District. She added that instead of having several events, organizers are aiming to host just one event per year, and make it bigger and better every year.- Advertisement -The 2018 Vertical Slam’s date has been set for June 9th.
BREAKING NEWS: DANIEL O’DONNELL’S Strictly Come Dancing run is over.The Donegal singer and his partner Kristina Rihanoff faced the dance off in tonight’s show as the publicSports presenter Kirsty Gallagher and Brendan Cole were the opposition in the dance-off. An emotional Daniel said he’d had an incredible time on the BBC’s hit TV show – and wanted it to continue.He has won an army of new fans during his time on the show – for both him and Donegal.The final decision tonight was down to the judges.Craig went for Kirsty – as did Darcey. And Bruno also went for them – leaving Daniel out of the show.“Whatever I have given I have received ten-fold,” said Daniel.“Kristina – if people only knew what this girl is really like,” said the Donegal.Kristina described Daniel as “the most wonderful guy”.And Daniel pointed at the judges adding: “I will find that dancer that’s lurking inside me.” BREAKING NEWS: SHOCK AS DANIEL VOTED OUT OF STRICTLY COME DANCING was last modified: October 18th, 2015 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:dance-offdaniel o’donnellStrictly Come Dancing
TWO people have been taken to hospital after a road traffic collision on the N56.A van and a jeep were involved in the incident outside Ardara, on the Killybegs Road.The driver of one vehicle had to be cut from the wreckage by fire crews from Glenties. Two ambulances also attended the scene and those injured were taken to Letterkenny General Hospital for treatment for their injuries.It’s understood the injuries are not thought to be life-threatening.Gardai have carried out an investigation at the scene and the road has since re-opened. TWO PEOPLE INJURED IN N56 ROAD CRASH was last modified: June 8th, 2013 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:TWO PEOPLE INJURED IN N56 ROAD CRASH
Chico >> While the Red Bluff High School swim team came up short against Pleasant Valley Wednesday, there were several strong performances and a new school record set.Freshman Jayne Brandt won the 100 Breaststroke and broke the old school record of 1:12.67 by nearly 3 seconds, going 1:09.78. To appreciate how fast Brandt swam, the second place time was 1:30.69.Brandt was a double winner, placing 1st in the 50 Free with a time of 27.15.On the boys side, freshman Jaxon Balken won both events …
If all your packages were sent correctly over the holidays, consider the job a plant cell has getting 3000 proteins into a chloroplast. Mistakes are not just inconvenient. They can be deadly, or at least bring photosynthesis to a halt. To guarantee proper delivery of components, plant cells have a remarkable shipping system, described in Current Biology by two UK biologists, Paul Javis and Colin Robinson.1 Part of the challenge is getting polypeptides past the double membranes of the chloroplast. A remarkable crew of enzymes and molecular machines puts a shipping label (transit peptide) on each amino acid chain, reads it, routes it to the correct destination, and then removes it:Over 90% of the ~3000 different proteins present in mature chloroplasts are encoded on nuclear DNA and translated in the cytosol [cell fluid outside the nucleus]. These proteins are synthesized in precursor form – each bearing an amino-terminal targeting signal called a transit peptide – and are imported into the organelle by an active, post-translational targeting process (Figure 1). This process is mediated by molecular machines in the outer and inner envelope membranes, referred to as ‘translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts’ (Toc) and ‘translocon at the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts’ (Tic), respectively. Upon arrival in the stroma [chloroplast interior], the transit peptide is removed and the protein either takes on its final conformation or is sorted to one of several internal compartments in a separate targeting process. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)The authors believe, like most evolutionists, that plastids (including chloroplasts) arose when a primordial cell engulfed another and took over its light-harvesting machinery, a process called endosymbiosis (see 10/01/2004, 09/09/2004, 08/06/2004 and 10/07/2003 headlines, and refutation by Don Batten). They believe the former cell that became the chloroplast retained only a stripped down version of its genetic code, and most of the DNA instructions for building these 3000 chloroplast proteins got transferred to the nucleus. Yet this means that a tremendous amount of machinery had to be developed to get the proteins to their destinations:Chloroplasts are complex organelles comprising six distinct suborganellar compartments: they have three different membranes (the two envelope membranes and the internal thylakoid membrane), and three discrete aqueous compartments (the intermembrane space of the envelope, the stroma and the thylakoid lumen). One of the consequences of this structural intricacy is that the internal routing of chloroplast proteins is a surprisingly complex process. While envelope proteins may employ variations of the Toc/Tic import pathway to arrive at their final destination, proteins destined for the thylakoid membrane or lumen employ one of four distinct targeting pathways (Figure 1). Thylakoid membrane proteins are targeted by the signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent and spontaneous insertion pathways, whereas lumenal proteins are targeted by the Sec and Tat pathways….Each of these “pathways” is an assembly-line process involving multiple proteins dedicated to these tasks. Several points brought out in the article make it challenging to perceive of a smooth transition from endosymbiosis to today’s complex shipping and handling pathways (numbering ours):The transit peptide needs to fit the receptor on the membrane, and another protein has to be ready to cleave it (remove it).The transit peptides have to be precise to avoid having the protein arrive at the wrong organelle, like the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion or peroxisome – organelles which also accept polypeptides with shipping labels.Transit peptides are varied. “One might therefore expect chloroplast transit peptides to share well-defined primary or secondary structural motifs,” they say. “On the contrary, transit peptides are remarkable in their heterogeneity. They vary in length from 20 to >100 residues, and have no extended blocks of sequence conservation.”The transit proteins “do not seem to form secondary structure in aqueous solution” but once they arrive at their target membrane, they seem to take on a characteristic structure.The polypeptides (precursor proteins) are threaded through the needle of specialized gates in the membrane. There, additional molecular machines (chaperones) make sure they do not fold prematurely.To get a polypeptide through a membrane involves three steps: contact, docking, and translocation, when the transit peptide is cleaved. This requires energy: a high concentration of ATP must be present for the operation.The Toc and Tic squads, like a delivery organization with a variety of employees skilled in particular tasks but working on common goals, is made up of multiple proteins, each with its own task to perform, all working in coordination.Once inside the outer membrane, the polypeptide has to get past the inner membrane. Another set of specialized proteins are available for that task.A third import apparatus has to complete the task of getting the polypeptide to its final destination. Many go to the thylakoid membrane, rich with light-harvesting structures and ATP synthase (see 08/10/2004 headline).Those polypeptides bound for the thylakoid membrane have a secondary shipping label (transit peptide). In addition, they may have a “stop-transfer” signal to indicate their destination.Removal of the secondary transit peptide can occur by “one of two very different pathways,” called Sec and Tat. Sec transports proteins in an unfolded state, but Tat can transport them in a folded state. Each pathway involves multiple proteins working together.In the Tat pathway, “There is even evidence that some proteins are exported in an oligomeric form” [i.e., several proteins bound together in a complex], “which points to a remarkable translocation mechanism,” they remark. Is this like squeezing a completed sweater through the eye of a needle? “…we currently know very little about this mechanism,” they say. “Somehow, this system must transport a wide variety of globular proteins – some over 100 kDa [kilodaltons] – while preserving the proton motive force and avoiding loss of ions and metabolites.” Their surprise at this indicates it is quite a feat.The translocation process can expend 30,000 protons, “a substantial cost by any standard.” According to current theory, a pH difference between inner and outer membrane provides the proton flow, but that pH balance must be carefully monitored and regulated.Another pathway named SRP inserts proteins into the lumen. The authors claim this pathway was “clearly inherited from the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast,” but admit that there are differences in the insertion pathways and events at the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts. “…it is fair to state that, while the major players in this pathway have been identified, their modes of action remain unclear and we do not understand how such highly hydrophobic proteins are bound by soluble factors, shuttled to the membrane and then handed over to membrane apparatus and inserted.”Evolutionists who expected the SRP pathway from E. coli bacteria to act the same in chloroplasts, where homologous proteins were detected, learned otherwise: “Surprisingly, this is not the case. In vitro assays for the insertion of a range of membrane proteins have shown that the vast majority of such proteins do not rely on any of the known protein transport machinery, including SRP, FtsY, Alb3 or the Sec/Tat apparatus, for insertion.” Nor do they rely on nucleoside triphosphates or proton flow.Speaking of the apparent spontaneous insertion of the thylakoid proteins, they comment, “This unusual pathway for membrane protein insertion appears to be unique to chloroplasts.” Though the typical insertion components are not involved, they believe it would be “overly simplistic” to assume that this pathway requires no “complex insertion apparatus.”Other pathways than those described above are used for other proteins to get inside the chloroplast. Some are encoded by the chloroplast DNA, translated in the interior, then transported to their destinations.Chloroplasts have to transport not only the essential light-harvesting proteins, but also “housekeeping” proteins for structural maintenance. These must be imported at their own separate rates depending on the stage of development or the environmental conditions, and have their own specific transit peptides.This represents the state of our knowledge on protein transport in chloroplasts. It is only a partial picture of a varied and complicated picture with many players, as their final paragraph makes clear:The Tat pathway manages the remarkable feat of transporting large, folded proteins without collapsing the delta-pH, and we currently know very little about this mechanism. Most membrane proteins use a possibly ‘spontaneous’ insertion mechanism that just does not make sense at the moment – why do these proteins need so little assistance from translocation apparatus, when membrane proteins in other organelles and organisms need so much? And how do these thylakoid proteins avoid inserting into the wrong membrane? We have gone some way toward understanding the rationale for the existence of all these pathways, but the thylakoid may still have surprises in store.By contrast, another paper in the same issue of Current Biology2 makes confident claims that the endosymbiosis theory has been demonstrated with diatoms (see 10/01/2004 and 07/21/2004 headlines about diatoms). They suggest that it was dangerous for genes to remain in the plastids, because of free radicals generated by the photosynthesis machinery, and because of higher mutation rates, and that’s why most of them wandered to the nucleus.1Paul Jarvis and Colin Robinson, “Mechanisms of Protein Import and Routing in Chloroplasts,” Current Biology, Volume 14, Issue 24, 29 December 2004, Pages R1064-R1077, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.11.049.2Nisbet, Killian and McFadden, “Diatom Genomics: Genetic Acquisitions and Mergers,” Current Biology Volume 14, Issue 24, 29 December 2004, Pages R1048-R1050, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.11.043.If you survived this mind-numbing description of chloroplast protein transport, you probably gasped at the complexity of it all. On a general level, getting a protein from one place to another sounds simple (that’s the way the authors of the second paper made it sound). But look how many players are involved, how many checks and balances, how many protection mechanisms and signals are required to get the packages delivered accurately. And this is all just to get the chloroplast to start to get ready to begin to commence doing its job: harvesting light for photosynthesis (and that’s another story: if this one was over your head, run for cover). You saw these scientists refer to the Darwinian tale that once upon a time, a bacterium engulfed a cyanobacterium that had learned somehow to harvest light. Somehow overcoming their defense mechanisms, the couple learned to share their technologies, forming a glorious partnership that led to plants. For this tall tale to be true, all these new protein transporting mechanisms had to arise to get the genes moved into the nucleus, and then to get their translated proteins back into the chloroplasts. Why did some genes migrate, and others stay put? The authors of the second paper had no answer – only three choices of just-so stories, their favorite one claiming that the other genes are on the way, but haven’t made it out yet (somehow avoiding the dangers of free radicals in the plastid for 500 million years). But did they offer any plausible way an unpredictable series of accidents led to all this complexity? Assuredly not. Considering the difficulty in getting just one protein right by chance (see online book), it strains credibility, light-years beyond the breaking point, to think that these complexes of complicated proteins – all working like a company – arose by chance. Nor would an unbiased person presume that time would suffice for thousands of beneficial mutations to occur for even one of the pathways to emerge, even assuming natural selection – that magic wand of the Darwinists – preserved them. But even then, one component would be useless if not part of a functioning system. That is the power of the argument from irreducible complexity. We’re talking about three thousand proteins needing special delivery to make a chloroplast work, and dozens of specialized transporter proteins. Each one must have dozens or hundreds of amino acids arranged in the correct sequence. Would one of the Toc proteins have any selective value if the other components were not present to help it get the polypeptide through the outer membrane? Clearly not. Even if all the Toc proteins emerged somehow, and managed to squeeze the polypeptide through the outer membrane, the polypeptide would just sit there uselessly without the Tic proteins to get it through the second membrane. If it got past the inner membrane, it would be useless unless it folded correctly with the aid of chaperones, and then made it to the exact destination in the chloroplast, where, working together with other proteins, it could perform its spectacular feat: converting light energy to chemical energy. But all the players in the system need that energy to do their jobs! It may be tedious to wade through some of these articles about cellular mechanisms, but take the time once in awhile, because the power of the the message – intelligent design – is in the details. Hold this evidence up in the face of the Darwin Party and ask them some hard-hitting questions: how could such coordinated complexity arise by unguided, mindless, purposeless processes? Did Fed Ex or UPS emerge from a tornado in a junkyard? It’s details like this that convinced Antony Flew, the prominent (former) atheist, that the case for intelligent design was compelling, and over many years, convinced him to become a theist (see 12/09/2004 entry). With some hard heads and hard hearts, overkill and persistence is necessary.(Visited 14 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0